Atomic Orbitals

Laser Crystals

Laser Crystals

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Orbitals, the probability clouds formed by electrons around atomic nuclei, have always been an on-the-nose subject for glass. This is based on a design by Keith Enevoldsen, and I can do no better than point to his excellent instructional series of pages and posters at https://elements.wlonk.com – scroll down a bit for orbitals, or here's a cogent summary in PDF form.

These orbitals are drawn:
1s0 2p0 3s0
3p0 3d0 3d1
4f2 4f0 4f1
as generated by Orbital Viewer, a vintage Windows app. 2004, a very good year.

Scale factors have been applied to each probability cloud:
5 2 1
1 1 1
.7 .7 .7
Asymptote surfaces for each cloud are also shown. These planes, cones, and spheres aren't part of the probability cloud, but show the locus of zero probability: no electron here ever.

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Laser etched glass
90 x 90 x 45mm